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A Glimpse into the Scary World of Vaccine Adjuvants

A Glimpse into the Scary World of Vaccine Adjuvants

September 30, 2008 By Vaccine Choice Canada

Adjuvants are formulated compounds, which when combined with vaccine antigens intensify the body’s immune response. They are used to elicit an early, high and long-lasting immune response. “The chemical nature of adjuvants, their mode of action and their reactions (side effect) are highly variable in terms of how they affect the immune system and how serious their adverse effects are due to the resultant hyperactivation of the immune system. While adjuvants enable the use of less *antigen to achieve the desired immune response and reduce vaccine production costs, with few exceptions, adjuvants are foreign to the body and cause adverse reactions”, writesAustralian scientist Viera Scheibner Ph.D, (1)  The most common adjuvant for human use is an aluminum salt called alum derived from aluminum hydroxide, or aluminum phosphate. A quick read of the scientific literature reveals that the neurotoxic effects of aluminum were recognized 100 years ago. Aluminum is a neurotoxicant and has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological disorders.
Prior to 1980, kidney patients undergoing long term dialysis treatments often suffered dialysis encephalopathy syndrome, the result of acute intoxication by the use of an aluminium-containing dialysate. This is now avoided using modern techniques of water purification. In pre-term infants, prolonged intravenous feeding with solutions containing aluminum is associated with impaired neurologic development. Scientists speculate that aluminum neurotoxicity may be related to cell damage via free radical production, impairment of glucose metabolism, and effects on nerve signal transduction. (2)  
Vaccines which contain both aluminum adjuvants and mercury based preservative, greatly magnify the neurotoxic effects. (3)
Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is a muscle disease first identified in 1993, and has been linked to vaccines containing aluminum adjuvants. Muscle pain is the most frequent symptom which can be localized to the limbs or be more diffuse. Other symptoms include joint pain, muscle weakness, fatigue, fever, and muscle tenderness. The disorder is associated with an altered immune system in some, but not all patients. A study published in the journal Brain (2001) revealed that 50 out of 50 patients had received vaccines against hepatitis B virus (86%), hepatitis A virus (19%) or tetanus toxoid (58%), 3-96 months (median 36 months) before biopsy. “We conclude that the MMF lesion is secondary to intramuscular injection of aluminum hydroxide-containing vaccines, shows both long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide and an ongoing local immune reaction, and is detected in patients with systemic symptoms which appeared subsequently to vaccination”, write the authors of the study. (4)
But aluminum’s neurotoxicity is of less concern to the vaccine industry than the fact that it elicits a lesser antibody response to the so called purer recombinant or synthetic antigens used in modern day vaccines than in older style live or killed whole organism vaccines. “This has created a major need for improved and more powerful adjuvants for use in these vaccines.” (5)
For decades, vaccine developers have been tinkering with various substances to trick the body into heightened immune responses. The most effective adjuvants are formulated with oils but have long been considered too reactive for use in humans. Immunologists have known for decades that a microscopic dose of even a few molecules of adjuvant injected into the body can cause disturbances in the immune system and have known since the1930’s that oil based adjuvants are particularly dangerous, which is why their use has been restricted to experiments with animals.
The classic oil based adjuvant called Freund’s Complete Adjuvant can cause permanent organ damage and irreversible disease – specifically autoimmune diseases. When scientists want to induce autoimmune disease in a lab animal, they inject it with Freund’s Complete Adjuvant, which causes great suffering and is considered by some too inhumane to even inject into animals.
Dr. Jules Freund creator of this oil based adjuvant warned in 1956 that animals injected with his formulation developed terrible, incurable conditions: allergic aspermatogenesis (stoppage of sperm production), experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (the animal version of MS), allergic neuritis (inflammation of the nerves that can lead to paralysis) and other severe autoimmune disorders. (6)
Adjuvants can break “tolerance”, meaning they can disable the immune system to the degree that it loses its ability to distinguish what is “self” from what is foreign. Normally, the immune system ignores the constituents of one’s own body. Immunologists call this “tolerance”. But if something happens to break “tolerance”, then the immune system turns relentlessly self-destructive, attacking the body it is supposed to defend. (6)
Scientists theorize that oil based adjuvants have the ability to “hyperactivate” the immune system, and in doing so, create chaos by inducing such an extremely powerful response that the immune system literally goes haywire and starts attacking elements it would normally ignore. (6)
Another theory has to do with “specificity”. One of the great distinguishing characteristics of the immune system is something akin to a highly sensitive innate intelligence that has evolved over eons to be able to respond very precisely to what it deems to be a threat to the body. Because the body contains many types of oily molecules and lipids, it may be that when an oil is injected, the immune system responds to it not only specifically, but with heightened intensity because the oil adjuvant resembles so closely the natural oils found in the body. A “cross reaction” then happens, sending the immune system into chaos destroying any oils found anywhere in the body that resemble the adjuvant oil. Demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis are an example of this destructive autoimmune process. (6)
To deepen one’s understanding of the shadowy world of vaccine development, award winning investigative journalist Gary Matsumoto’s new book is a “must read.” It documents the secret human medical experimentation conducted on American citizens by doctors and scientists working for the U.S. military. It is a book about “betrayal of the most fundamental rules of medical ethics; and betrayal of the basic duty of military and civilian leaders to protect the people they govern.” Vaccine A: The Covert Government Experiment That’s Killing our Soldiers and Why GI’s are Only the First Victims, is a gripping read into the mad science world of the U.S. military’s biowarfare vaccine development program which, since 1987 has injected tens of thousands of U.S. troops with an experimental unlicensed anthrax vaccine containing squalene. An oil based adjuvant, squalene has been known for decades to cause severe autoimmune diseases in laboratory animals. Writes Matsumoto, “The unethical experiments detailed in this book are ongoing, with little prospect of being self-limiting because they have been shielded from scrutiny and public accountability by national security concerns.” Reading this book, one gets a permanent chill in the spine as we glimpse the “writing on the wall” of what is to come. (6, 7)
“When UCLA Medical School’s Michael Whitehouse and Frances Beck injected squalene combined with other materials into rats and guinea pigs back in the 1970’s, few oils were more effective at causing the animal versions of arthritis and multiple sclerosis”, writes Matsumoto. In 1999, Dr. Johnny Lorentzen, an immunologist at Sweden’s Karolinska Institute proved that on injection, “otherwise benign molecules like squalene can stimulate a self-destructive immune response”, even though they occur naturally in the body. Other research institutes have also shown that the immune system makes antibodies to squalene, but only after it is injected (6)
We now know that squalene, added to boost immune response in a formulation known as MF59, is the secret ingredient in certain lots of experimental anthrax vaccine that has caused devastating autoimmune diseases and death in countless Gulf War vets (Canadian, British and Australian troops were also injected with squalene laced vaccine), and continues to be used today. There is a “close match between the squalene-induced diseases in animals and those observed in humans injected with this oil: rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus”, writes Matsumoto. These three illnesses have been proven to be caused by this oil, but there is an additional long list of autoimmune diseases associated with squalene injection into humans. (6)
“There are now data in more than two dozen peer-reviewed scientific papers, from ten different laboratories in the U.S., Europe, Asia and Australia, documenting that squalene-based adjuvants can induce autoimmune diseases in animals……observed in mice, rats, guinea pigs and rabbits. Sweden’s Karolinska Institute has demonstrated that squalene alone can induce the animal version of rheumatoid arthritis. The Polish Academy of Sciences has shown that in animals, squalene alone can produce catastrophic injury to the nervous system and the brain.
The University of Florida Medical School has shown that in animals, squalene alone can induce production of antibodies specifically associated with systemic lupus erythematosus”, writes Matsumoto. (6)
Long List of Side EffectsReferring to squalene in her extensive article on adjuvants, Dr. Scheibner writes, “This adjuvant contributed to the cascade of reactions called “Gulf War syndrome”, documented in the soldiers involved in the Gulf War. The symptoms they developed included arthritis, fibromyalgia, lymphadenopathy, rashes, photosensitive rashes, malar rashes, chronic fatigue, chronic headaches, abnormal body hair loss, non-healing skin lesions, aphthous ulcers, dizziness, weakness, memory loss, seizures, mood changes, neuropsychiatric problems, anti-thyroid effects, anaemia, elevated ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate), systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, Raynaud’s phenomenon, Sjorgren’s syndrome, chronic diarrhoea, night sweats and low-grade fevers. (1)
Matsumoto punctuates his book with poignant interviews of military personnel who suffered many of these extreme and devastating syndromes, all of whom tested positive for anti-squalene antibodies which has become THE definitive marker for people who have been injected with this adjuvant and who have gone on to develop catastrophic diseases.
Immunologist, Dr. Pamela Asa was the first person to recognize that the autoimmune diseases she was seeing in military personnel mirrored those in experimental animals injected with oil formulated adjuvants. When she met a patient with similar autoimmune symptoms who had participated in an experimental herpes vaccine trial, who also knew he had been injected with MF59, a squalene adjuvant being used as a ‘placebo’ in that study, everything began to fall into place. Pam Asa contacted Dr. Robert Garry, a leading virologist at Tulane University Medical School, whose specialty is developing antibody tests and asked him to develop a test for the detection of anti-squalene antibodies – a test that ultimately became the most important forensic and diagnostic tool identifying patients whose autoimmune diseases followed injection with squalene laced anthrax vaccine. (6)
Juxtaposed to heart wrenching testimonies of shattered health and ruined lives is the military’s defiant stonewall and denial that a squalene laced anthrax vaccine was injected into thousands of its people without their informed consent – this despite the fact that the FDA and independent researchers have tested and identified varying amounts of squalene in specific lots of the vaccine.
Even more stunning is the fact that by 1997, hundreds of millions of dollars had already been spent testing vaccines formulated with squalene adjuvants by leading research institutes like NIH (National Institutes of Health) who tested its efficacy in HIV vaccines, the National Cancer Institute who for nearly two decades conducted research with squalene-boosted vaccines, and the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) had been testing it in animals since 1988 and began human clinical trials in1991. Nineteen of NIAID’s 23 trials were for prototype HIV vaccines. Writes Matsumoto, “ Squalene adjuvants are a key ingredient in a whole new generation of vaccines intended for mass immunization around the globe.” (6)
Immune System Sees Squalene as an Enemy to AttackResearchers at Tulane Medical School and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research “have both proven that the immune system responds specifically to the squalene molecule. Squalene’s pathway through the body has been tracked with a radioactive tracer in animals by none other than Chiron, (well known flu vaccine manufacturer) and maker of MF59, the squalene-based adjuvant, now also a component of FLUAD, an Italian influenza vaccine. (6)
The immune system does in fact “see” squalene and recognizes it as an oil molecule native to the body. The key is “route of administration”. As Gary Matsumoto says, “Squalene is not just a molecule found in a knee or elbow – it is found throughout the nervous system and the brain.” When it is injected into the body, the immune system sees it as an enemy to be attacked and eliminated. (6)
As any immunologist will tell you, the way an antigen encounters the immune system makes all the difference. You can eat squalene – no problem as it is an oil the body can easily digest. But studies in animals and humans show that injecting squalene will “galvanize the immune system into attacking it, which can produce a self-destructive cross reaction against the same molecule in the places where it occurs naturally in the body – and where it is critical to the health of the nervous system.” (6)
This phenomenon is also known as ‘molecular mimicry’, where the immune system forms antibodies against one of its own structures and will continue to attack the ‘self’ molecule in the body that resembles the one in the germ, or as is the case with squalene, an identical substance that is naturally present in the body. Once this self-destructive process begins, it never stops as the body continues to make the molecule the immune system is now trained to attack.
Another example involving autoimmune ‘molecular mimicry’ is when the immune system has been sensitized to attack myelin, the insulating fatty coating around nerve fibres which insures the smooth relay of nerve signals. The body would continue to make myelin in order to replenish and repair the protective sheath around its nerve endings. But says Matsumoto, “In the act of doing so, the body immunizes itself against itself, administering over and over again what amounts to a booster dose of something that the immune system now wants to get rid of. This vital constituent (myelin) is now the enemy, and the immune system is now programmed to obliterate it in an endless loop of self-destruction” – the process involved in MS (multiple sclerosis), and ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease).(6)
Tying molecular mimicry to the autism epidemic, many children have regressed into autism spectrum disorders after injection with the triple live virus MMR (measles,mumps,rubella) vaccine. Dr.Vijendra Singh’s research at Utah State University suggests that auto-antibodies are attacking myelin in these children. He has shown that many autistic children have auto-antibodies to brain myelin basic protein (MBP) as well as elevated levels of measles virus antibodies. “Immunoblotting analysis showed the presence of an unusual MMR antibody in 60% (75 of 125) of autistic children, but none of the 92 normal children had this antibody. In addition, there was a positive correlation (greater than 90%) between MMR antibody and MBP auto-antibody, suggesting a causal association between MMR and brain autoimmunity in autism. This is one of the most important findings in autism to date, which prompted us to link measles virus in the etiology of the disorder”, writes Dr. Singh. (8, 9, 10)
Immunologist Dr. Bonnie Dunbar has also done extensive research on the mechanisms of injury inflicted by hepatitis B vaccine and has observed similar autoimmune processes involving molecular mimicry in people who developed devastating neuroimmune syndromes after injection with this vaccine. (11)
Molecular Mimicry as a Bio-WeaponMatsumoto reports that Soviet bioweaponeers used the principal of molecular mimicry in the 1980’s to engineer a ‘designer disease’ that would attack myelin. By splicing a fragment of myelin basic protein into legionella bacterium, they created what amounted to a living “nano-bomb”, which they injected into guinea pigs. What they found was that the immune system quickly cleared the legionella bacterium, but the myelin molecule, smuggled in by this microbial “Trojan horse” initiated a second wave of disease which caused experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, the animal version of MS. The Soviets recognized this creation for what it was – a biological time bomb!! (6)
“Squalene is a kind of trigger for the real biological weapon: the immune system. When the immune system’s full repertoire of cells and antibodies start attacking the tissues they are supposed to protect, the results can be catastrophic,” writes Matsumoto.
His assessment is seconded by Dr. Pam Asa – “Oil adjuvants are the most insidious chemical weapon ever devised.” (6)
“Molecular mimicry, seen for its diabolical potential as a weapon by the Soviets as far back as the 1980’s, also applies to squalene. But the real problem with using squalene, of course, is not that it mimics a molecule found in the body; it is the same molecule,” writes Matsumoto. “So what American scientists conceived as a vaccine booster was another “nano-bomb”, instigating chronic, unpredictable and debilitating disease. When the NIH (National Institutes of Health) argued that squalene would be safe because it is native to the body, just the opposite was true. Squalene’s natural presence in the body made it one of the most dangerous molecules ever injected into man!” (6)
The main proponents for the use of squalene in vaccines have been the U.S. Department of Defense and the NIH. The anti-squalene antibodies in sick American and British military personnel are evidence that military experimentation has caused an unprecedented health catastrophe in tens of thousands of people onto whom the vaccine was forced and who were denied the right to make an informed decision based on existing scientific knowledge of the dangers of injecting squalene. “By adding squalene to their new anthrax vaccine, they did not make a better vaccine, they made a biological weapon.” (6)
Why , one would obviously ask, would anyone knowingly inject such a dangerous substance into humans? Certainly in terms of the U.S. military’s decision, they chose to turn a blind eye to the existing science, which for decades had documented the immune destructive properties of squalene. They justified its use because they knew they had a weak and ineffective vaccine which needed a serious boost. In the face of weaponized biowarfare agents like anthrax already developed by Russia and fear that it was also possessed by Iraq, they were desperate to increase the vaccine’s effectiveness as they launched into the first Gulf War. Additionally, explains Matsumoto, “scientists in the United States are now literally invested in squalene. Army scientists who developed the second generation anthrax vaccine have reputations to protect and licensing fees to reap for the army….[and] …worldwide rights to develop and commercialize the new recombinant vaccine for anthrax.” (6)
He goes on to explain, “the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has been supporting both animal and human research with squalene since the 1980’s. Squalene has become perhaps the most ubiquitous oil adjuvant on the planet, which is something that should concern everyone. Many of the cutting edge vaccines currently in development by the NIH and its corporate partners contain squalene in one formulation or another. There is squalene in the prototype recombinant vaccines for HIV, malaria, herpes, influenza, cytomegalovirus and human papillomavirus. Some of these prototypes like HIV, malaria and influenza are intended for mass immunization around the globe.” (6)
Squalene Adjuvants Enter the Global Market FLUAD, the squalene boosted flu vaccine has been licensed in Italy since 1997. It contains MF59, the squalene adjuvant made by Chiron.
Although all the published papers co-authored by Chiron-employed scientists and Italian researchers have reported MF59 to be safe, Gary Matsumoto suggests a flaw in study designs may “prevent researchers from seeing the vaccine’s real risks.” Testing of FLUAD was limited to elderly people in nursing homes – average age was 71.5 which would tend to obscure autoimmune problems that might arise for a number of reasons. If autoimmune symptoms like joint pain and fatigue did occur in geriatric Italians, doctors might not connect these complaints to anything but old age.(6)
“Autoimmunity is notorious for taking years to diagnose because the early symptoms (e.g. headaches, joint and muscle pain and fatigue) are so vague; primary care physicians often fail to recognize it…..a large Phase lV trial did not even bother to analyze the “common-post immunization reactions” in study participants, recording only those adverse events severe enough to require a doctor’s visit within 7 days of immunization.” In another study patients were observed for 180 days, but only serious events like “admission to hospital or death” qualified as a reaction – nothing else was recorded. Symptoms of adverse reactions listed in the FLUAD package insert are almost identical to the Air Force case-definition for Gulf War Syndrome, and include rashes, malaise, fever, myalgia, arthralgia, weakness, sweating and various autoimmune reactions and neurologic disturbances. (6)
“The question is whether scientists working for pharmaceutical companies are intentionally designing studies so as to miss adverse reactions that inconvenience their marketing strategy?” asks Matsumoto. “Chiron’s conclusion about squalene’s safety are at odds with recent data from studies in both animals and humans.” (6)
Just in from the news lists on February 9, 2005 is an item informing of the European “debut” of a new adjuvant approved for use in a new high-potency hepatitis B vaccine. Fendrix, the new enhanced hepB vaccine is being launched by pharma giant GlaxoSmithKline for use in people with poor immune responses (like dialysis patients) and those at high risk for developing hepatitis B. It is formulated with a new adjuvant that can “significantly improve the effectiveness of immunizations.” AS04, the ‘proprietary’ adjuvant based on MPL, originally developed by U.S. company Corixa, ”increases the immune potency of the new vaccine, allowing two dose administration rather than three. It has been shown clinically to be more effective than alum, the most widely used adjuvant in vaccines.” (12)
So what exactly is this new high potency adjuvant? We’re told by the press release that MPL (AS04), is a “derivative of the lipid A molecule found in Gram-negative bacteria, is extracted from bacterial cell walls and is one of the most potent regulators of the immune response, used by the body to alert itself to bacterial infections.” (12)
Full name of the lipid is monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)
This news should put everyone on high alert because guess what? Lipids are oils/fatty acids and according to Matsumoto, MPL is identified in declassified documents as one of two squalene emulsions used in the Army’s new “recombinant protective antigen anthrax vaccine (rPA) which the FDA, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Department of Defense fast-tracked into clinical trials in 1998. The other squalene adjuvant they used was Chiron’s MF59. (6)
It appears that Fendrix is only the first of a whole new generation of “enhanced potency” vaccines coming down the pipeline using the new high potency lipid adjuvant, MPL. “The adjuvant is also being used in a number of GSK’s developmental vaccines, including one that could be the first effective vaccine for malaria”, says the article. MPL (AS04) adjuvant is also a component of GSK Bio’s genital herpes vaccine, as well as a component in their cervical cancer vaccine and a new tuberculosis vaccine.” (12)
In the unraveling of the squalene story, we find that a squalene emulsion first known as Triple Mix (based on Freund’s adjuvant) was later given the commercial name “Ribi”. Triple Mix (renamed Ribi) was tested by Dutch scientists on rabbits who found it caused “severe effects…the largest number and most severe lesions when compared with the other adjuvants.” (6)
In June 1999, Ribi ImmunoChem its manufacturer was acquired by Corixa Corporation for $56.3 million, who presumably also own the Ribi formulation. Whether MPL (AS04) is a formula related to Ribi is undoubtedly “proprietary” information, but from Matsumoto’s research, we know they are all squalene based. And it doesn’t end there! MPL, Corixa’s multi-million dollar baby, is slated for inclusion not only in the “enhanced potency” vaccines already mentioned, but will also be a strategic component of new allergy and autoimmune vaccines in development. (13)
From their inception, mass vaccinations have acted as a biological weapon, undermining health, manipulating and crippling the immune system, and instigating cycles of new and debilitating diseases. Monopoly medicine’s solution? Inject us with more powerful, genetically engineered high potency vaccines. Never mind they are seeding us with “nano-bombs” that will further attack our already compromised immune systems.
The concept of stimulating a hyperactive immune response by using oil-based adjuvants has clearly backfired since we now know that the stronger the antigenic response, the more damaging the adjuvant itself is to the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system. The precedent for mass medical experimentation via an ever increasing recommended vaccine schedule has been set. We can now predict the grim future of mankind: an epidemic of neurological disorders and autoimmune diseases never before imagined.
Notes & ResourcesAdjuvants listed by Scheibner: “Today the most common adjuvants for human use are aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate. However, there are a number of other adjuvants based on oil emulsions, products from bacteria (their synthetic derivatives as well as liposomes) or gram-negative bacteria, endotoxins, cholesterol, fatty acids, aliphatic amines, paraffinic and vegetable oils. Recently, monophosphoryl lipid A, ISCOMs with Quil-A, and Syntex adjuvant formulations (SAFs) containing the threonyl derivative or muramyl dipeptide have been under consideration for use in human vaccines
*Definition of Antigen (Scheibner): “Micro-organisms, either bacteria or viruses, thought to be causing certain infectious diseases and which the vaccine is supposed to prevent. These are whole-cell proteins or just the broken-cell protein envelopes, and are called antigens”

  1. Viera Scheibner, Ph.D, The Adverse Effects of Adjuvants in Vaccines, Nexus Magazine Dec. 2000 vol.8, No.1 http://www.whale.to/vaccine/adjuvants.html
  2. Aluminum Toxicity notes from Dr. Boyd Haley Toxic Test Foundation website: http://www.altcorp.com/DentalInformation/aluminumvaccines.htm
  3. Boyd E. Haley, Professor of Chemistry: Thimerosal Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopment Outcomes.
  4. Brain, Vol. 124, No. 9, 1821-1831, September 2001, 2001 Oxford University Press http://brain.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/124/9/1821
  5. Vaccine Adjuvants: current state and future trends, Volume 82: Number 5: October 2004 – Issue Immunology and Cell Biology http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/icb
  6. Gary Matsumoto, Vaccine A-The Covert Government Experiment That’s Killing our Soldiers and Why GI’s are Only the First Victims The Greatest Story Never Told – Chapter 3
  7. Gary Matsumoto Press Release and biography: http://www.vaccine-a.com
  8. Vijendra K Singh, Ph.D, Abnormal Measles Serology and Autoimmunity in Autistic Children – Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunol, 109 (1): S232, January 2002
  9. Vijendra Singh – lecture at ATEDM Autisme Montreal Conference 2002
  10. Institute of Medicine Meeting (IOM) on Vaccines and Autism, February 9, 2004
  11. Bonnie Dunbar, Ph.D – articles and research proposal – VRAN website
  12. New adjuvant debuts in new hep B vaccine , February 9, 2005, In-Pharma Technologist.com http://www.in-pharmatechnologist.com/news/news-ng.asp?n=57959-new-adjuvant-debuts
  13. Corixa weblink to MPL press release on allergy & autoimmune applications: http://www.corixa.com/default.asp?pid=auto_capsule&id=22

~ Toxic Vaccine Adjuvants ~

Source Link:  http://freedom-articles.toolsforfreedom.com/toxic-vaccine-adjuvants-the-top-10/

Toxic vaccine adjuvants and ingredient are not emphasized enough in the debate over the safety of vaccines. The medical establishment, which has essentially been wed to Big Pharma ever since its inception by the Rockefellers, routinely downplays the idea that these adjuvants are quite harmful. In reality, many are known carcinogens. Western medicine also tends to makes the excuse that it is a case of “benefit vs. risk”, and that the benefit outweighs the risk – but does it really, given the ton of natural alternative remedies and the fact that these adjuvants can get stuck in your body forever? I have listed 1o of the most common toxic vaccine adjuvants below, and after reading about each one, please consider whether you think we can accurately call vaccines “good medicine”, given that these 10 adjuvants are being injected directly into the bloodstream (thus bypassing the digestive filters) of every vaccine patient who receives them.
You can confirm that these adjuvants and ingredients are indeed being added to vaccines by looking the official lists of the CDC (Center for Disease Control) as well as other websites like this.

Toxic Vaccine Adjuvants / Ingredients
#1: Mercury (Thimerosal or Thiomersal)

Mercury, which constitutes 49.7% of thimerosal (or thiomersal), has been commonly known for a very long time to be a highly toxic agent. Mercury has always been beloved by allopathy ever since its inception; in fact, the 3 main treatments of the early allopaths of the 19th century were bloodletting, surgery and the injection of toxic heavy metals like lead and mercury to purportedly displace disease! The expression “mad as a hatter” comes from the observation that the early hat makers, who used mercury in felt to make hats, became crazy through inhaling the stuff.
Numerous studies have been done on the toxicity of mercury, with evidence it leads to infertility, gastritis (a precancerous stage of gastric cancer), neurodegeneration, mitochondrial abnormalities, nephrotic syndrome,apoptosis (cell death) and autism, yet the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer, under the auspices of the Rockefeller-created WHO) still refuses to admit mercury can cause cancer and is leaving mercury categorized as a class 2b possible carcinogen (as opposed to class 2a probable carcinogen or class 1 definite carcinogen). The study above on cell death concluded:
Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic metal that can exert multiple adverse effects, ultimately leading to cell death. Before causing death, the Hg enters the cells and affects diverse intracellular targets.

Since thimerosal contains about 50% mercury by weight, vaccines with a ratio of 1:10,000 (or 0.01% thimerosal) have about 50 mg/L mercury, which exceeds the 0.2 mg/L hazardous waste toxicity regulatory level for mercury. According to US state and federal hazardous waste management requirements, any vaccines with this level of thimerosal which are discarded need to be treated as hazardous waste.

Toxic Vaccine Adjuvants / Ingredients
#2: Aluminum

Aluminum is another metal which, like mercury, is highly harmful for human health. Aluminum is a “light” metal rather than a heavy metal like lead and mercury, but its health effects are devastating nonetheless. As a vaccine adjuvant, aluminum is normally mixed into the vaccine as a salt, e.g. as aluminium phosphate and aluminium hydroxide.
This study specifically asked the question, “Aluminum vaccine adjuvants: are they safe?” and found they were not. Other studies have implicated aluminum in the development of impaired congitive function,neurotoxicity, Alzheimer’s and autism. (It should be noted, however, that it is possible to take aluminum into the body if it is tightly bound as a molecule and not suffer any ill effects, because it will pass straight through the body and not be released. An example of this is zeolite, a matrix of aluminum silicates, which is actually a spectacular health supplement that can safely remove toxins like mercury from your body.)

Toxic Vaccine Adjuvants / Ingredients
#3: Human Diploid Cells (Aborted Fetuses)

Believe it or not, fetal DNA tissue in used in vaccine cultures, disguised under the name of diploid cells. A diploid cell is simply a cell with a double set if chromosomes. These cells are human cells, derived from the tissue of babies or fetuses, some of which are definitely aborted! This has being going on for over 50 years. The article Human Fetal Links with Some Vaccines admits that “Two different strains of human diploid cell cultures made from fetuses have been used extensively for vaccine production for decades. One was developed in the United States in 1961 (called WI-38) and the other in the United Kingdom in 1966 (called MRC-5).”
Many people, religious or not, are understandably opposed to allowing themselves to be injected with the tissue of dead babies. Would you want to be injected with that? There are major ethical ramifications here, not to mention grave health issues too. A study by Dr. Deisher found a connection between the injection ofhuman diploid cells and autism. The basis of this is that when you inject something foreign into your body, your cells will either assimilate it (whereby the foreign human DNA will be transported into nuclei and be integrated into host genome, causing phenotype change) or attack it (meaning you develop an auto-immune response, leading to the auto-immune diseases of the ASD [Autism Spectrum Disorder]). Either way, residual human fetal DNA fragments in vaccines can be one of causes of autism in children.
Dr. Deisher’s study concluded:
Autistic disorder change points years are coincident with introduction of vaccines manufactured using human fetal cell lines, containing fetal and retroviral contaminants, into childhood vaccine regimens. This pattern was repeated in the US, UK, Western Australia and Denmark. Thus, rising autistic disorder prevalence is directly related to vaccines manufactured utilizing human fetal cells.

I also recommend watching Clint Richardson’s fantastic documentary “Lethal Injection” where he delves into the issue of aborted diploid cells and offers further research and analysis.

Toxic Vaccine Adjuvants / Ingredients
#4: Animal Cells

Almost all vaccines need something in which to grow the culture, and that normally means animal cells. All sorts of animals are used for this, including chickens, pigs, dogs, monkeys, horses, rabbits, cows and more. All these animal cells remain in trace amounts in the vaccine, as admitted by the FDA. This means that when you allow a vaccine to be injected into your body, you are allowing animal DNA into your body, which of course are foreign protein cells. Is this really a good idea for your body? Consider that:

  • many vaccines contain egg-derived albumin, which is responsible for a lot of allergic reactions according to this study;
  • pig/swine viruses were discovered in the Rotarix vaccine which the FDA suspended in 2010;
  • the polio vaccines of the 1960s, which contained monkey cells, were contaminated with a virus known as SV40 (simian virus 40). This later was shown to cause widespread cancer.

New vaccines are now being developed which contain dog cells (e.g. Flucelvax). Additionally, albumin can be human-derived, but it’s still a problem. This study concluded side effects were grossly under-reported, and there are still have concerns over the safety of it.
Marti Oakley in an article on Activist Post entitled “Vaccines: Human and Animal DNA” points out that:
Cell lines, which can be derived from aborted human babies, can last for decades and are developed from a single type of cell.  Yet it is known that after continuous culturing these lines begin to mutate into cancer-causing agents. If these cell lines do this spontaneously in the lab, what are the chances they are doing the same thing once inside the human body where the culturing never ends? … We are being injected via vaccine with bits and pieces of other human beings; with the bits and pieces of other mammals.  Whatever the intended purpose of vaccines was initially, it is apparent that too little is either known or acknowledged regarding the potential adverse side affects from co-mingling the DNA of humans and animals and the potential for viral and bacterial cross-contaminations that can and do occur.

Toxic Vaccine Adjuvants / Ingredients
#5: MSG (Monosodium Glutamate)
MSG (monosodium glutamate or sodium glutamate) is the sodium salt of the glutamic acid (glutamate), which is one of the amino acids or protein building blocks.
Free glutamic acid is a neurotransmitter that your brain, nervous system, eyes, pancreas and other organs need to function and start certain processes in your body. MSG has become notorious for being a hidden ingredient in many foods which creates the illusion of protein or more food being present in what you’re eating – when they’re really not. In 1959, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) labeled MSG as “Generally Recognized as Safe” (GRAS), yet since then it has acknowledged the existence of an “MSG Symptom Complex” which describes short-term reactions to MSG. These include numerous side effects which people experience after eating MSG, such as numbness, headaches, fatigue, disorientation and heart palpitations.
Despite its GRAS rating, the FDA commissioned a study on MSG in 1995, probably because of people complaining about “Chinese Restaurant Syndrome”.

This study found that MSG Symptom Complex can involve symptoms such as:

  • Burning sensation
  • Facial pressure or tightnes
  • Chest pain or difficulty breathing
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Palpitation
  • Numbness
  • Tingling
  • Bronchospasm
  • Drowsiness
  • Weakness
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How many people are sensitive to MSG? It has been estimated up to 40%. Dr. Russell Blaylock, a board-certified neurosurgeon and author of “Excitotoxins: The Taste that Kills”, has done considerable research on MSG. He calls it an excitotoxin, meaning it overexcites your cells to the point of damage or death, causing brain damage to varying degrees, and potentially triggering or worsening amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig’s disease), Parkinson’s, and Alzheimer’s. All three diseases can develop gradually.
Why is MSG being used in vaccines? It’s being used because it is a stabilizer that prevents or slows down oxidation or damage from light.
This website claims that MSG is only added to some vaccines: “Glutamate is added as a nutrient to the growth medium for MMR-II and is not in the final product in significant amounts; monosodium glutamate is added to FluMist (0.188 mg/0.2 mL dose); monosodium L-glutamate is added to ProQuad (.4mg), Zostavax (.62mg) and Varivax (.5mg); and potassium glutamate is added to RabAvert (1mg).”
Still, since MSG is a known toxin with deleterious effects on human health, why do doctors willingly inject it into people?

Toxic Vaccine Adjuvants / Ingredients
#6: FormaldehydeFormaldehyde is a foul-smelling chemical used a preservative and biocide.
The IARC categorizes it as a class 1 definite carcinogen, and the National Toxicology Program concluded in this study that:
Formaldehyde is known to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans and supporting data on mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Formaldehyde was first listed in the Second Annual Report on Carcinogens in 1981 as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals. Since that time, additional cancer studies in humans have been published …

Toxic Vaccine Adjuvants / Ingredients
#7: AntibioticsAntibiotics
are typically used in vaccine production and manufacture. Antibiotics were once the crown jewel of Western medicine, with their ability to wipe out infectious diseases, but many have long known they are a double-edged sword. Antibiotics indiscriminately kill all the bacteria in your system, helpful or harmful. This obviously destroys the balance of bacteria in your gut, which forms the basis of your immune system. Thus, antibiotics invite all sorts of future problems and disease (unless you quickly re-establish the proper balance of bacteria, e.g. with probiotics), including fungal attacks.
I have previously written about the phenomenon of antibiotic overuse. There have been many reports in the last few years that Big Pharma is no longer investing in antibiotics, because every time they invent a new antibiotic drug, the bacteria adapt to it and change. This process is fueling the rise of superbugs. The FDAstates some of the antibiotics used during vaccine manufacture include neomycin, polymyxin B, streptomycin and gentamicin. Some of these belong to the aminoglycoside class of antibiotics, which include side effectssuch as dizziness, nausea, renal (kidney) toxicity and ototoxicity (hearing loss).

Toxic Vaccine Adjuvants / Ingredients
#8: SqualeneSqualene
was an experimental toxic vaccine adjuvant added to vaccines around the time of the first Gulf War. Squalene has been implicated in GWS (Gulf War Syndrome) in this study, and the DoD (Department of Defense) conveniently “lost” (read destroyed) 700,000 immunization records, which might have told us why squalene was showing up in Gulf War veterans’ blood samples. ProjectCensored.comcommented:
A military lab researcher interviewed by Insight was quoted as saying, “We have found soldiers who are not sick that do not have the antibodies, and we found soldiers who never left the United States, but who got shots (administered by the military) who are sick—and they have squalene in their systems. We found people who served overseas in various parts of the desert that are sick who have squalene. And we found people who served in the desert but were civilians who never got the shots, who are not sick and do not have squalene.”

Toxic Vaccine Adjuvants / Ingredients
#9: Peanut Oil #65Peanuts
are known as a very common allergen, yet despite this, there are some vaccines which contain peanut oil. It has been used for a very long time. In fact, Dr. Lawrence Palevsky writes that it has been in use since 1960, and since Big Pharma vaccine manufacturers are not required by law to list every single ingredient used in culturing vaccines, there may be no real way to now which vaccines have traces of it. He writes:
If current vaccine package inserts do not contain the specific evidence that peanut oil, or peanut meal, is contained within the final vaccine product, it does not mean that peanut antigen is not in the final vaccine product. Vaccine manufacturers use different growth media on which to manufacture the vaccines. They do not report, and I believe are not required to report, the exact ingredients in all of the growth media. Therefore, we may not know whether peanut antigen is used in the vaccine manufacturing process just by reading through the package inserts … and, it may, or may not, have anything to do with an attempt to purposely hide the information that peanut antigen is present in vaccines.

Peanut oil is far from the only adjuvant used in vaccines which is highly allergenic. Other vaccine antigens, such as those used in Hepatitis B vaccines and the HPV (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine Gardasil, are manufactured in yeast cells. Yeast proteins have been shown to cause allergic reactions in people. Do you want this stuff in your bloodstream?

Toxic Vaccine Adjuvants / Ingredients
#10: GMOs
On top of all the toxic vaccine adjuvants listed above, the GMO (Genetically Modified Organism)issue also pertains to vaccines, because vaccines are now being made with genetically engineered viruses.
This goes to show that, sadly, the so-called sacred precautionary principle of science is often thrown to the wind when the potential for massive profit arises. We simply do not know what effect genetically engineered viruses will have on the human body long term. What happens when foreign DNA is inserted into the body? Does it trigger undesirable changes in human cells? Does the human body treat it as foreign and attack it? Does it combine with human DNA, and if so, is the new combined DNA an enhancement or impairment? Will it transfer to future generations? We’re clearly moving into unknown and potentially very dangerous territory by allowing this stuff to be be injected into our bodies.

This study warned of the dangers of using genetically engineered viruses in vaccines:
Genetically modified (GM) viruses and genetically engineered virus-vector vaccines possess significant unpredictability and a number of inherent harmful potential hazards … Important questions concerning effects on nontargeted individuals within the same species or other species remain unknown. Horizontal transfer of genes, though lacking supportive experimental or epidemiological investigations, is well established. New hybrid virus progenies resulting from genetic recombination between genetically engineered vaccine viruses and their naturally occurring relatives may possess totally unpredictable characteristics with regard to host preferences and disease-causing potentials. Furthermore, when genetically modified or engineered virus particles break down in the environment, their nuclei acids are released … There is inadequate knowledge to define either the probability of unintended events or the consequences of genetic modifications.

Other Toxic Vaccine Adjuvants and Ingtedients
In addition the above top 10 toxic vaccine adjuvants and ingredients, it would also be wise to take note of many other possible vaccine fillers, which include:

• acetone (solvent used in fingernail polish remover)
• ammonium sulfate
• amphotericin B
• betapropiolactone
• formalin
• gelatin
• glycerol
• hydrolized gelatin
• phenol red indicator
• phenoxyethanol (antifreeze)
• potassium diphosphate
• potassium monophosphate
• polymyxin B
• polysorbate 20
• polysorbate 80
• residual MRC5 proteins
• sorbitol
• streptomycin (antibiotic)
• tri(n)butylphosphate (neurotoxin)

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Shockingly, there are numerous toxic vaccine adjuvants. Can we fairly call vaccines “good medicine” when they routinely consist of such poisonous additives, known carcinogens and potentially life-changing, DNA-altering additives?

Investigating vaccines fully and deeply is like opening a witch’s “Pandora’s box” brew … who knows what creatures and concoctions are lurking in that syringe?
What do you think? Do you think it’s fair to call vaccines “good medicine”? Please spread this article far and wide, and let us know your opinion.
Want to keep informed on the latest and greatest news and analysis on the New World Order, Natural Health, Sovereignty and more?

Makia Freeman is the editor of The Freedom Articles and senior researcher at ToolsForFreedom.com, writing on many aspects of the the global conspiracy, from vaccines to Zionism to false flag operations and more, and also including info on natural health, sovereignty and higher consciousness.

Thimerosal Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopment Outcomes

April 7, 2009 By Vaccine Choice Canada

Affidavit Of Boyd E. Haley. Professor And Chair. Department Of Chemistry. University Of Kentucky

Forward
Thimerosal or merthiolate is a derivative of thiolsalicylate where ethyl mercury is attached though the sulfur. It is defined as a preservative or anti microbial in medical use. This anti microbial action is dependent on thimerosal breaking down releasing ethyl mercury that can penetrate cell membranes and bind to intracellular enzymes, inhibiting them, and causing cell death. Further, in certain biological environments the ethyl mercury can further break down releasing mercury cation (Hg2+). Hg2+ is also very reactive with enzymes and proteins inhibiting their biological functions and causing cell injury or death. Both ethyl mercury and Hg2+ are very neuro toxic compounds. However, ethyl mercury is more rapidly partitioned into the hydrophobic (fatty) tissues of the central nervous system and is a more potent neuro toxin than Hg2+ based on this “partitioning factor”. It is this partitioning factor that makes organic mercurials such as dimethyl mercury so neuro toxically lethal (this is the compound that caused the death of a Dartmouth University chemistry professor after she was exposed to a drop or two on her gloved hand). The concern with organic mercurials, such as thimerosal, is that such compounds can be perceived as “pro toxicants” just as certain pharmaceuticals can be classified as “pro drugs”. This means that the original compound, e.g. thimerosal, is less reactive giving the compound time to partition into certain areas of the body before it breaks down releasing the ethyl mercury and then further releasing Hg2+. However, while attaching ethyl mercury to thiolsalicylate makes the ethyl mercury less reactive it most likely allows increased partitioning into the central nervous system before the ethyl mercury is released and thereby, increases the neuro toxicity per unit ethyl mercury involved. Considerable caution must be taken when stating what is the “toxic level” of mercury and any mercury containing compound. Humans are not rats in a pristine cage where their environment can be controlled to ensure that other toxicities and infections are not occurring. The level of mercury that would cause toxicity in a healthy individual is much higher than what would be needed to cause a toxic effect in an individual that is ill or under oxidative stress. This is because additional stresses lower the amount of protective compounds that bind mercury and render it less harmful. If an individual is low on these protective compounds, then less mercury or thimerosal would be needed to cause a clinical effect. Below I will present my interpretation of our research and that from other laboratories that focus on the potential toxicity of injected thimerosal in the vaccine mixture.

Biochemical Toxicity Studies

In my laboratory we have recently done an evaluation of the potential in vitro toxicity of vaccines containing thimerosal as a “preservative” versus those vaccines not containing thimerosal. In these preliminary studies, vaccines with thimerosal added consistently demonstrated in vitro toxicity that was markedly greater than the non thimerosal or low thimerosal containing vaccines. We also compared the toxicity of the vaccine solutions with solutions of pure thimerosal and with solutions of mercury chloride. Mercury is a known neurotoxin and its mechanism of neurotoxicity has been studied in our laboratory for the past 10 years. To determine the relative toxicity we used two different biological testing systems: (i) brain homogenates and (ii) a mixture of four purified mammalian enzymes. In human brain homogenates we had earlier observed that mercuric ion rapidly inhibited tubulin viability at low micromolar levels. mimicking the situation in Alzheimer’s diseased brain, but was less toxic to actin (see Figures 1 & 2). Both tubulin and actin are polymerizing proteins that are actively involved in neurite growth cone activity. In contrast to mercuric ion, vaccines containing thimerosal inhibited both tubulin and actin viability (see Figure 3). This would indicate that thimerosal has the potential to be much more damaging to neurite development than equivalent levels of mercuric ion. It is my hypothesis that thimerosal releases ethyl mercury which most certainly interferes with neurite growth and neuronal development in infants through rapid inhibition of several thiol sensitive enzymes/proteins including actin, tubulin and creatine kinase. This supports the concept that thimerosal in biological solutions injected into the human body could cause a number of systemic problems identified as disease states.

Cell Culture Work on Thimerosal

The toxicity results obtained in our biochemical toxicity studies were not at all unexpected since thimerosal and other compounds containing a similar thiol organic mercury group are widely known to be especially potent neurotoxic agents. Our biochemical toxicity results are very consistent with the reported toxicity of thimerosal containing vaccines versus nonthimerosal containing vaccines as observed in cell culture studies (Kravchenko et al., Evaluation of the Toxic Action of Prophylatic and Therapeutic Preparations on Cell (cultures 111. The Detection of Toxic Properties in Medical Biological Preparations by the [Degree of Cell Damage in the L132 Continuous Cell Line. Zh. Microbiological Epidemiol. Immunobiol. (3):87 92, 1983). The results of this research demonstrated the toxicity of thimerosal (merthiolate) by showing cell damage of the 1 :10,000 concentration found in vaccines after dilution of this mixture to I part per 128. The conclusion was that thimerosal use for medical and biological preparation (i.e. vaccines) manufacturing is inadmissible, especially in pediatrics. Other studies on cytotoxicity of thimerosal compared it to another mercury containing preservative (phenylmercuric acetate) and thimerosal was 5 times more toxic with only a two minute exposure to the cells. The LD50 for thimerosal was 2.2 micrograms/ml for a 24 hour exposure to human conjunctival cells and the comment was made that “the longer the contact time of these preservatives, the severer the damage to the ocular tissue”.

In collaboration with another professor in our department we have now included toxicity studies using human brain neurons in culture. Our initial studies have shown that thimerosal is quite toxic to these neurons in culture. Further, studies using vaccines with and without thimerosal present demonstrated that the presence of thimerosal greatly enhanced the toxicity. The neuron toxicity studies mirror the results we observed in the enzyme toxicity studies mentioned above with the thimerosal being more toxic than inorganic mercury. Further studies are underway at the present time.

Case Histories on the Toxicity of Thimerosal and Other Ethyl Mercury Releasing Compounds

A recent review covers much of the case history literature on the little that is known about ethyl mercury toxicity (L. Magos Review on the Toxicity of Ethyl mercury Including it.s Presence as a Preservative in Biological and Pharmaceutical Products, J. Applied Toxicology 21. 1 5, 2001). The conclusions reached by the author of this review is that “ethyl mercury may present a risk when blood mercury concentrations approaches or exceeds 1.0 microgram per ml and severe intoxication occurs when blood mercury concentration approaches or exceeds 2 micrograms per ml.” In the context of the literature reviewed the conclusions by Dr. Magos seems reasonable. However, this conclusion was based primarily on ethyl mercury and methylmercury exposures from occupational exposures, dietary intake, externally applied tinctures along with vaccination data on adults. It should be noted that in considering deceased patients the one infant had a blood mercury (from an externally applied tincture) that was measured at 1.34 micrograms per ml, a young boy had a blood mercury of 5 micrograms per ml (from eating pork from a pig feed ethyl mercury) and adults had 15 micrograms per ml (from eating bread made with seed treated with a compound that generated ethyl mercury). Without the needed extensive data to make a conclusion, it appears as if the younger the patient the more deadly or toxic the ethyl mercury is at a lower concentration. This is further supported by the other (Kostial, K., et al. Influence of Age on Metal Metabolism and Toxicity, Environmental Health Perspectives, v25, 81 86, 1978) who state “results obtained in sucklings show a very high intestinal absorption of all metals which is partly attributed to milk diet; a higher whole body retention, higher blood levels and a much higher accumulation in the brain”. Certainly, no conclusion of sate levels of exposure to ethyl mercury on infants could be made from the data reviewed by Dr. Magos.

The exposures reviewed were from different delivery modalities and there is a considerable difference in the toxicity of many materials when oral intake is compared to injections via the vaccine route. Total mercury in the blood stream does not distinguish between bound mercury (e.g. that coupled with glutathione and being removed from the body) and unreacted mercury (that available to cause further damage). Ratios of bound and free ethyl mercury are likely to be different if ethyl mercury is eaten or inhaled versus injected, bypassing the protective systems available in the intestines. It was also pointed out in the review that the blood/urine ratios varied from 3.4 to 18 indicating that urine mercury levels are inferior for monitoring ethyl mercury exposures. However, since ethyl mercury should partition between blood and urine at a consistent ratio this data could also be interpreted to indicate that the mercury in some of these patients is coming from more than just ethyl mercury (e.g. dental amalgams that are the major source of human mercury body burden). In a report on mercury levels in squirrel monkeys treated intranasally with thimerosal (Blair, A., Clark, B., Clarke, A and Wood, P., Tissue Concentrations of f Mercury After Chronic Dosing of Squirrel Monkeys with Thimerosal Toxicology, v3, 171176, 1975) it was shown that exposure to 0.002% thimerosal daily for 6 months, with a total of 2,280 ,ug given, lead to a 174/29 or about 6.0 ratio of mercury in the brain/blood ratio indicating that thimerosal leads to a more rapid build up of brain versus blood mercury. However, it was pointed out that the highest brain total (250ng/g) was still below the 3 9 ug/g where neurological symptoms appear, but this later value would depend on the oxidative stress of the patient and could be much lower.

The review states that “ethyl mercury in medicinal preparations declines with time” and gave examples of 38%, 64% and 85% decreases in ethyl mercury in plasma and immunoglobin G samples. This mercury did not disappear and the loss of ethyl mercury has to be due to ethyl mercury reacting covalently with the protein thiols in the medicinal preparations. In aged medicinal preparations, increased ethyl mercury reaction with protein thiols in the preparations would likely change the neurotoxity effects of the resulting mercury complexes compared to pure ethyl mercury How this pre reacted ethyl mercury would contribute to blood levels of mercury appears unknown, but it is likely to be quite different from pure ethyl mercury However, what is known is that ethyl mercury retains its severe toxicity after prolonged exposure in living animals. This is supported by a case mentioned in the Magos review where ethyl mercury obtained by “consumption of meat from a pig fed with ethyl mercury” caused severe damage to adults and killed two young boys. It seems as if ethyl mercury can retain its severe toxicity after a period of incubation time in a living pig, butchering and storage of meat, followed by cooking. Then the concept that the faster decomposition of ethyl mercury, relative to methylmercury, decreases its toxicity compared to methylmercury seems to be such a small difference as to be insignificant. What is solidly observed is that ethyl mercury (and other organic mercurials) can withstand considerable exposure to a living system, storage in a biological environment, exposure to high heat in the presence of muscle tissue, and still produce a lethal toxicity when taken orally.

In a 1972 a (National Geographic ‘Quicksilver and Slow Death’, vl 42, #4, 507527, 1972) a similar report was presented where the pig was fed seed coated with Panogen, a methylmercury pesticide. The family ate the pig as above and the four children suffered severe neurological damage. But, in contrast to the ethyl mercury poisoning above, they all lived. One of the children was in utero during the consumption of the pork, suffered the most and was born blind and mentally retarded. Again, this supports the concept that the younger the human the more detrimental the toxic effect the organic mercury compounds will have.
It appears certain that much of the blood level mercury in these patients presented in the Magos review could be from sources other than pure ethyl mercury In my opinion, I do not believe that a safe level of ethyl mercury can be arrived at by only comparing blood levels of mercury if we do not know the chemical nature of all of the contributing mercury sources, the initial source of the mercury or if the presence of other compounds were involved (e.g. antibiotics that bind heavy metals such as tetracycline and enhance thimerosal toxicity:see below in Synergistic Toxicity).
It is of major concern that ethyl mercury from thimerosal in vaccines is a special situation. It is injected with millimolar levels of aluminum and it is probable that thimerosal, a negatively charged molecule, has formed a salt compound with the positively charged aluminum cation that would change its partitioning, breakdown rate, and may have a synergistic effect on the toxicity of any mercuric ion produced from the ethyl mercury Aluminum is a known neurotoxin and to be causally involved in macrophagic myofasciitis. The enhanced toxicity of ethyl mercury in the presence of other toxic agents is to be expected. Few of the clinical cases included in the Magos review were from vaccine but the one that was discussed problems which occurred in a 44 year old adult with a blood mercury of 0.104 ,ug per ml, so low that Dr. Magos called the diagnosis “unconvincing”. Perhaps co administration of thimerosal with aluminum in the Hepatitis B vaccine represents the “other aetiological factors than ethyl mercury” that might have been responsible for his mercury like induced symptoms at such low concentrations. The authors of the report on this patient state “this patient had evidence of previous environmental exposure to mercury” and this data can imply that thimerosal is more toxic in patients previously exposed to materials that sensitize them.

Dr. Magos Report to the IOM, Summer 2001

Dr. Magos makes several statements that reasonable individuals with scientific experience could disagree about. First, “The consequence of faster decomposition is that, compared with methylmercury. The neurotoxic potential of ethyl mercury declines faster.?’ This requires the assumption that ethyl mercury breaks down to Hg2+ as a toxic factor. What if the breakdown product was a conjugate of cysteine known to enhance the toxicity of mercuric ion? What if the breakdown was caused by reactive oxygen species generated in response to an infection? It is known that ethyl mercury breaks down 10 times faster in the presence of reactive oxygen species (Suda, 1, and Takahashi, [l., Degradation of methyl and ethyl mercury into inorganic mercury by other reactive oxygen species besides hydroxyl radical. Arch. Toxicol. 66, 34 39, 1992) making the production of toxic Hg2+ occur more rapidly at sites of high level of reactive oxygen, and in the body this would be at sites of infection or inflammation or within mitochondria, the important energy producing organelle. In my opinion, the enhanced chemical ability to breakdown ethyl mercury versus methyl mercury at sites of reactive oxygen production (usually sites of oxidative stress) makes ethyl mercury a much more dangerous compound than methylmercury as it attacks chemically at a site of infectious damage.
In section 2.b.a Dr. Magos quotes his research as showing that methylmercury treated rats had 1.55 (males) and 2.4 (females) the mercury in their brains as did ethyl mercury treated rats. In addition, the ethyl mercury treated rats had 3.4 fold more inorganic mercury in their brains. He states that this “excludes the possibility that the cleavage itself or the formed inorganic mercury is responsible for the brain damage. If this were the case, the brain ethyl mercury treated rats would be more affected than the brain of methylmercury treated rats (which didn’t occur by his analysis).” The problem with this conclusion is that Dr. Magos expects the damage caused by methylmercury to be the same as that caused by a combination of ethyl mercury and 3.4 fold extra Hg2+. This is not likely as methyl and ethyl mercury would partition into the hydrophobic areas of the brain whereas Hg2+ would most likely react in the hydrophilic aspect of the brain. The inhibition of specific brain enzymes by thimerosal (ethyl mercury) compared to Hg2+ are markedly different.

Synergistic Toxicity with Thimerosal

Since about 1989 my laboratory has been actively involved in research regarding the toxic effects of elemental mercury and the relationship of this toxicity to neurological diseases, primarily Alzheimer’s disease. One fact that has become extremely obvious to me during this past 11 years is that it is impossible to determine the exact toxic level of mercury or mercury containing compounds that is safe for all humans. There are several reasons why mercury should not be considered safe for humans at the measurable levels currently reported as ‘ safe” by current government monitoring agencies. One of these is the obvious effects of other metals on increasing the toxicity of identical levels of mercury. An example is that of zinc ion, an essential metal for normal cell function. Yet, in the presence of mercuric ion, the addition of zinc enhances the toxicity level significantly (see Figure 4). Cadmium and lead are even more potent at enhancing the toxicity of mercuric ion. This concept of synergistic toxicity of mercury with other metals is supported by prior research that demonstrated that a mixture of mercury and lead at LD I levels of each metal produced a mixture with an LD 100 effect, at least 50 times the additive effect minimally expected (Schubert, J., Riley, E.J. and Tyler, S.A., Combined Effects in Toxicology-A Rapid Systematic Testing Procedure: Cadmium, Mercury and Lead. J. of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 4: 763 776, 19 8).
The synergistic effects of different compounds with thimerosal are not all known but some do exist. For example, the commonly used antibiotic, tetracycline, is known to enhance thimerosal toxicity. Crook and Freeman, Reactions Ind’~ced by the Concurrent Use of Thimerosal and Tetracycline, American J. of Optometry & Physiological Optics v60,#9, pp759761 1983, reported that the use of tetracycline in humans induced and increased the irritation and inflammation of the ocular tissues caused by thimerosal. These results were confirmed in studies using rabbits. Therefore, it is obvious that concurrent treatment of infants with other drugs and/or antibiotics has the possibility to enhance the toxic effects of thimerosal exposures. Further, it was postulated that the synergistic effects of tetracycline was due to the metal binding properties of this antibiotic that may have delivered the toxic metal more effectively to the site(s) inducing enhanced toxicity. This data clearly demonstrates that there is no know level of safety for the use of thimerosal, especially in infants being treated with other medicinals that would enhance the toxicity of the ethyl mercury released such as occurred with tetracycline (a commonly used antibiotic).
Since each human would likely have a level of toxicity from other mercury and non mercury containing sources it would be impossible to determine the exact level of mercury that would induce observable toxicity in each human. Many environmental toxicants could work synergistically with ethyl mercury rendering the ethyl mercury much more toxic than it would be in the absence of these other toxicants (e.g., elemental mercury from dental amalgams, cadmium from smoking, lead from paint and drinking water, aluminum, etc.). Humans are not rats in a pristine cage, eating rat chow carefully prepared to eliminate any toxicants. Humans smoke, drink alcohol, have numerous mercury emitting amalgam fillings, eat questionable food, and drink water known to contain other toxicants. Finally, it is impossible to state the toxic effect of any injection of thimerosal unless one knows the toxic exposure of the individual to other heavy metals or other environmental toxicants.

The Effects of Age and Health on Thimerosal Toxicity

The detrimental effect of any specific level of mercury or mercury containing compound would have on any one individual’s metabolic system would be directly proportional to both the level of’ protective big compounds” (e.g., glutathione, metallothioine) that exist within that person on the time of exposure and, the ability to physiologically clear such toxicants from the body. The level of the protective compounds would certainly be directly dependent on two factors, age and health. Infants, with their immature physiology and metabolism would not be expected to handle mercury as efficiently as mature adults. The elderly have been shown to have decreased “protective” glutathione levels compared to middle aged and young adults. Melatonin, a hormone, is known to be decreased in the aged and melatonin is known to increase the neuron and cellular concentration of glutathione. Glutathione is the natural compound that binds mercuric ion and aids in its removal from the body. This explains partly why the aged are also more susceptible to oxidative toxicants such as mercury.
The elderly also have weakened immune systems and are more susceptible to microbial infections are known to lower their chemical energy levels and, further, to reduce their ability to synthesize the proteins that protect them from heavy metals. Infants have their own weaknesses regarding toxic exposures. Infants do not make much bile in their early months of life and are less able to remove mercury through bilary transport the major route for mercury removal. They also do not have a fully developed renal system that would remove other heavy metals (e.g. aluminum! as effectively as adults. The age factor must always be considered for response to heavy metal exposure as well as spurious microbial infections.

The Effects of Genetic Susceptibility on
Mercury Toxicity

Genetically susceptibility is of critical importance. For example, other researchers have shown that genetic carriers of the brain protein APO E2 are protected against Alzheimer’s disease (AD) whereas genetic carriers of the APO E4 genotype are at enhanced risk factor for developing AD. APO E proteins are synthesized in the brain with the assigned physiological task of carrying waste material from the brain to the cerebrospinal fluid, across the blood brain barrier into the plasma where the material is cleared by the liver. The biochemical difference between APO E2 and APO E4 is that APO E2 has two additional thiol groups, capable of binding and removing mercury (and ethyl mercury) that APO E4 does not have. The second highest concentration of APO E proteins is in the cerebrospinal fluid. Therefore, it is my opinion that the protective effects of APO E2 is due to its ability to protect the brain from exposure to oxidants like mercury and ethyl mercury by binding these toxicants in the cerebrospinal fluid and keeping them from entering the brain. I strongly object to labeling those “genetically susceptible” as “having a genetic disease” because they are the first injured on exposure to modern toxicants. Humans did not evolve breathing mercury vapor or having organic mercury compounds injected in them as infants.

Similarity to Acrodynia

The argument that the thimerosal containing vaccines could not deliver the amount of mercury to cause a systemic illness is somewhat refuted by the history of the disease classified as acrodynia. Perhaps autism will end up like acrodynia, where the removal of the causative material (i.e. the mercury containing teething powders) lead to cessation of the disease and the identification of the cause. Due to the perceived low levels of mercury in the teething powders and the wide spread use of mercury in medicine at that time it was 10 years after the removal of the mercury containing teething powders before medicine acknowledged that mercury exposure was the causal factor. It is significant to notice that many of the symptoms of acrodynia are similar to the clinical symptoms of children identified today as autistic, with attention deficit disorder, etc. that have no family history of such diseases or illness classifications.

Summary

It is the inability to see the effects of chronic, low level toxicities on human health that has been, and remains, our greatest failing as intelligent beings. For example, within the past year two publications in refereed scientific journals have emerged from major foreign research universities demonstrating that mercury can induce the formation of three major pathological diagnostic hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease. The production of these diagnostic hallmarks occurred at non lethal concentrations near or below the levels of mercury reportedly found in most human brains. First, mercury has been shown to induce an increase in amyloid protein secretion (the component of amyloid plaques) and to increase the phosphorylation of a protein called Tau {see Oliveri et al., J. of Neurochemistry, V 74, p231, 2000}, and to produce neurofibillary tangles {Leon” et al., NeuroReports V12(4), 733, 2001 }. All of this was done with neurons in culture and represent observations found and considered diagnostic of Alzheimer’s disease. Further, in a very recent article by Dr. Ashley Bush in the journal Neuron it is implied that Alzheimer’s disease may be caused by heavy metal buildup. This article focused on removal of zinc and copper by chelation decreasing amyloid plaque formation in rats mercury was not studied. However, these metals, along with silver, are the components of dental amalgams. This work is in agreement with data published earlier from my laboratory in refereed articles and summarized in one single article {Pendergrass and Haley, Metal Ions in Biological Systems V34, Chspter 16, Mercury and Its Effects on Environment and Biology, Siegel and Sigel EDS., Marcel Dekker, Inc. I 996}. This data basically demonstrated that addition of very low amounts of mercury to normal human brain homogenates inhibited critical thiol sensitive enzymes (creatine kinase, glutamine synthetase and tubulin) that are also dramatically inhibited in Alzheimer’s diseased brain. Research in our laboratory clearly demonstrates that thimerosal rapidly inhibits these enzymes as well as several other metabolically important enzymes.
Further, data presented in Aschner et al. in Methylmercury Alters Glutamate Transport in Astrocvtes Neurochemistry International, v37, #2 3, pp 199 206, 2000 indicate that organic mercury compounds dysregulate excitatory amino acid homeostasis and may cause glutamate mediated excitotoxic mechanisms to be involved on exposures that cause neuron death or injury. Glutamate toxicity is one hypothesis proposed to explain the slow deterioration of AD as it was reported that the enzyme, glutamine synthetase, that removes toxic glutamate was elevated in AD cerebral spinal fluid (D. Gunnersen and B. Haley, PNAS, USA, v89, 11949, 1992) and inhibited in AD brain (Butterfield et al., J. Neurochemistry, v68, 2451, 1997). Glutamine synthetase is rapidly inhibited by the divalent mercuric ion as it has two divalent metal ion (manganese) binding sites required for activity. It is obvious that ethyl mercury from thimerosal would have the same effect on glutamine synthetase as mercury and methyl mercury and impair nervous system glutamate metabolism. Consistent with this concept is the reported ability of astrocytes (the brain cells that contain glutamine synthetase that converts toxic glutamate to non toxic glutamine) to preferentially concentrate brain organic mercury (Ashner, Astrocytes as Modulators of Mercury lnduced Neurotoxicity Neurotoxicology vl 7, #3 4, pp663 669 1996). The straight forward conclusion is that any exposure to mercury or mercury containing compounds (e.g. thimerosal) would exacerbate any medical condition affected by the inability to metabolize glutamate.
The chemical rationale for the neurotoxicity of thimerosal is that this compound would release ethyl mercury as one of its breakdown products. Ethyl mercury is a well known neurotoxin. Further, combining thimerosal with the millimolar levels of aluminum cation plus significant levels of formaldehyde, also found in these vaccines, would make the vaccine mixture of even greater risk as a neurotoxic solution. The synergistic effects of mercury toxicity with other heavy metal toxicities (Pb, Cd, Zn) has been established in the literature for many years. Further, using this vaccine mixture on infants who are ill and do not have fully developed bilary (liver) and renal (kidney) systems could greatly increase the toxic effects compared to that observed in healthy adults.
The toxic effects of exposure to thimerosal to adults and infants and always been reported to have dire consequences, including death. Similar exposures, even at lower level, in infants should have more severe consequences compared to those observed in adults made toxic by exposure to similar ethyl mercury containing compounds. Mercury is primarily removed through the bilary system and aluminum is removed by the renal system. Inability to rid the body of these toxicants would greatly increase the damage they are capable of doing.
While one can understand the necessity of using an anti microbial “preservative” in vaccines to prevent contamination it represents poor judgment to use a “preservative” that breaks down into a well known neurotoxin when safer “preservatives” were available. Further, it has come to my attention through several parents that a significant number of physicians encourage mothers to have their infants receive multiple vaccinations during one visit. In one report a 13 pound baby was given 4 vaccinations. This would result in the equivalent of a 130 pound adult receiving 40 vaccinations in one day. This is quite unreasonable in my opinion, but appears to happen with a great deal of regularity in practice. Physicians do this as they are not warned of the possible consequences and are regularly informed by vaccine providers that the vaccines are totally safe. No steps were taken to recommend against this procedure.
It is very difficult to prove that mercury or organic mercury compounds cause any specific disease that is identified by its related symptoms. This is due to the fact that mercury toxicity from various types of mercury containing materials may be considerably different and the genetic susceptibility and age of the victim would alter the response. This difficulty is further compounded due to the high numbers of confounding factors presented in the current human environment. However, since infants get autism and related disorders, and many of our aged are afflicted with AD, we know that they have crossed the thin red line into the neurologically diseased state. There can be no doubt that the purposeful use of mercury in medicine and dentistry, especially if it was prolonged and excessive, would significantly contribute to the onset of their disease. In my opinion, this is especially true in the case of the injection of thimerosal via vaccines in day old infants and toddlers.
FIGURE 1: COMPARISON OF THE VIABILITY OF BRAIN TUBULIN IN CONTROL (NON DEMENTED) VERSUS AI ZI IEIMER’S DISEASED BRAIN.
FIGURE 2: A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF MERCURIC ION ADDITION ON CONTROL (NON DEMENTED) AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASED BRAIN.
FIGURE 3: A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF THIMEROSAL ADDITION ON CONTROL (NON DEMENTED) AND Al ZHEIMER’S DISEASED BRAIN.